Operational Factors To see the scoring system and I'm going to be using throughout this comparison, click here.
Types of Clinical Questions Clinical questions may be categorized as either background or foreground. Why is this important? Determining the type of question will help you to select the best resource to consult for your answer.
Background questions ask for general knowledge about an illness, disease, condition, process or thing. For example How overweight is a woman to be considered slightly obese? What are the clinical manifestations of menopause? Foreground questions ask for specific knowledge to inform clinical decisions.
These questions typically concern a specific patient or particular population. Foreground questions tend to be more specific and complex compared to background questions. Quite often, foreground questions investigate comparisons, such as two drugs, two treatments, two diagnostic tests, etc.
Foreground questions may be further categorized into one of 4 major types: In pediatric patients with Allergic Rhinitis, are Intranasal steroids more effective than antihistamines in the management of Allergic Rhinitis symptoms? The PICO model is a helpful tool that assists you in organizing and focusing your foreground question into a searchable query.
What are the most important characteristics of the patient? What do you want to do with this patient? What is the main alternative being considered? What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention?
Are you trying to decide between two drugs, a drug and no medication or placebo, or two diagnostic tests? Outcomes may be disease-oriented or patient-oriented. Type of Clinical Question and Study Design Two additional important elements of the well-built clinical question to consider are the type of foreground question and the type of study methodology.
This information can be helpful in focusing the question and determining the most appropriate type of evidence. Questions of treatment in order to achieve some outcome. May include drugs, surgical intervention, change in diet, counseling, etc. Questions of identification of a disorder in a patient presenting with specific symptoms.
Questions of progression of a disease or likelihood of a disease occurring. Questions of negative impact from an intervention or other exposure. Knowing the type of foreground question can help you select the best study design to answer your question.
You always want to look for the study design that will yield the highest level of evidence. Consult the pyramid click the image to enlarge it and the definitions below.
To see more info on the relationship between study design and question type, check out Chapter Four "What is the Question? A statistical technique that summarizes the results of several studies in a single weighted estimate, in which more weight is given to results of studies with more events and sometimes to studies of higher quality.
It can, but need not, involve meta-analysis. In Clinical Evidence, the term systematic review refers to a systematic review of RCTs unless specified otherwise.
This design allows assessment of the relative effects of interventions.learning effectiveness of the two cases.
This study focuses on the multisection experience of one instructor in a research methods course in a public administration program. In the following pages, the article reviews the literature addressing the Comparison of Interaction Between Online and Face-to-Face Settings Online Face-to-Face Mode.
JPAE 19 Journal of Public Affairs Education Comparing the Effectiveness of Classroom and Online Learning: Teaching Research Methods Anna Ya Ni.
Hierarchy of Study Designs for Evaluating the Effectiveness of a STEM Education Project or Practice. Syringomyelia (SM) and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Page 3 -- Veterinary Resources. Syringomyelia Main Page; Research News -- Page 2; Veterinary Resources -- Page 3.
C = Comparison (Can be None or placebo.) (What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention? Are you trying to decide between two drugs, a drug and no medication or placebo, or two diagnostic tests?).
16 KAIRARANGA – VOLUME 14, ISSUE 1: A Comparison Study of the Effectiveness of the Lexia Reading Programme. Mike Ness Educational Psychologist, Ministry of Education Josh Couperus.