Formation[ edit ] The ISG was made up of more than one thousand AmericanBritish and Australian citizens, with the United States providing the bulk of the personnel and resources for the operation. These people included civilian and military intelligence and WMD experts, as well as a large number of people working to provide armed security and support. David Kaywho had been a weapons inspector after the first Gulf Warwas chosen to head the group.
Diplomatic relations started in India and Iraq maintained strong relationships since Indian independence. Both nations share their experiences in rebuilding and development.
Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. The two countries established diplomatic relations in and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties.
Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iran—Iraq war in the s.
However, at the height of the Iraq WarIndonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad inand reopen it in June Over 50, Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta on Sunday, February 9,to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.
Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq. On the other hand, Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber and electronic goods.
Although the reasons for Saddam Husayn's decision to invade Iran were complicated, the leaders of the Baath Party had long resented Iranian hegemony in the Persian Gulf region and had especially resented the perceived Iranian interference in Iraq's internal affairs both before and after the Islamic Revolution.
Their objectives were to halt any potential foreign assistance to the Shias and to the Kurdish opponents of the regime and to end Iranian domination of the area. The Baathists believed a weakened Iran would be incapable of posing a security threat and could not undermine Iraq's efforts to exercise the regional influence that had been blocked by non-Arab Iran since the mids.
By earlythe Iraqi occupation forces were on the defensive and were being forced to retreat from some of their forward lines.
In JuneSaddam Hussein ordered most of the Iraqi units to withdraw from Iranian territory; after that time, the Ba'athist government tried to obtain a cease-fire based on a return of all armed personnel to the international borders that prevailed as of September 21, Iran did not accept Iraq's offer to negotiate an end to the war.
Subsequently, Iranian forces invaded Iraq by crossing the Shatt al Arab in the south and by capturing some mountain passes in the north. To discourage Iran's offensive, the Iraqi air force initiated bombing raids over several Iranian cities and towns.
The air raids brought Iranian retaliation, which included the aerial bombing of Baghdad. Although Iraq eventually pushed back and contained the Iranian advances, it was not able to force Iranian troops completely out of Iraqi territory.
The perceived threat to Iraq in the summer of thus was serious enough to force Saddam Hussein to request the Nonaligned Movement to change the venue of its scheduled September meeting from Baghdad to India; nevertheless, since the fall ofthe ground conflict has generally been a stalemated war of attrition—although Iran made small but demoralizing territorial advances as a result of its massive offensives in the reed marshes north of Basra in and inin Al Faw Peninsula in earlyand in the outskirts of Basra during January and February In addition, as of early the government had lost control of several mountainous districts in Kurdistan where, sincedissident Kurds have cooperated militarily with Iran.
Saddam Hussein's government has maintained consistently since the summer of that Iraq wants a negotiated end to the war based upon the status quo ante. Iran's stated conditions for ceasing hostilities, namely the removal of Saddam Hussein and the Baath from power, however, have been unacceptable.
The main objective of the regime became the extrication of the country from the war with as little additional damage as possible. To further this goal, Iraq has used various diplomatic, economic, and military strategies; none of these had been successful in bringing about a cease-fire as of early Although the war was a heavy burden on Iran and Iraq politically, economically, and socially, the most profound consequence of the war's prolongation on Iraq, was its impact on the patterns of Iraq's foreign relations.
Whereas trends toward a moderation of the Baath Party's ideological approach to foreign affairs were evident beforethe war helped to accelerate these trends. Two of the most dramatic changes were in Iraq's relationships with the Soviet Union and with the United States.
During the course of the war Iraq moved away from the close friendship with the Soviet Union that had persisted throughout the s, and it initiated a rapprochement with the United States.
Iraq also sought to ally itself with Kuwait and with Saudi Arabia, two neighboring countries with which there had been considerable friction during much of the s. The alignment with these countries was accompanied by a more moderate Iraqi approach to other Arab countries, such as Egypt and Jordan, which previously Iraq had perceived as hostile.
Iraqi—Iranian relations have remained cool since the end of the Iran—Iraq War in Outstanding issues from that war, including prisoner of war exchanges and support of armed opposition parties operating in each other's territory, remain to be solved.
Relations appear to have improved since Marchwhen Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a two-day visit to Iraq. See Iraq—Israel relations Iraq participated in the Arab—Israeli wars ofandand traditionally has opposed all attempts to reach a peaceful settlement between Israel and the Arab States.
Israel attacked Iraq's nuclear research reactor under construction near Baghdad in July During the Iran—Iraq war, Iraq moderated its anti-Israel stance considerably. In August President Hussein stated to a visiting U.the brookings institution – university of bern project on internal displacement minorities, displacement and iraq’s future by elizabeth ferris, senior fellow & co-director and kimberly stoltz.
Umm Qasr, Iraq’s largest port, reopened in June and is receiving some 40 cargo ships per month, USAID reports. U.S.-funded dredging is deepening the port from 9 to 10 meters to meters. On February 5, , Powell appeared before the UN to prove the urgency to engage a war with Iraq.
Although the presentation failed to change the fundamental position of the Security Council, including France, Russia, China, and Germany, Powell succeeded in hardening the overall tone of the United Nations towards Iraq.
1 Introduction The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) activities undertaken by the United Nations in Iraq. From February , UNEP intervened in the following key areas: 1. Desk study on the Environment in Iraq UNEP in Iraq: Post-Conflict Assessment.
On March 20, , a coalition of military forces composed mostly of Americans invaded Iraq. Iraqi resistance was ineffective, and U.S. troops rapidly overwhelmed the country. Widespread fears that Iraq might use chemical or biological weapons to counter the invasion proved groundless, as U.S.
- In March of , the United States along with the United Kingdom and a few other countries sent troops to Iraq.
Within weeks the regime of Saddam Hussein was defeated and the capital city of Iraq, Baghdad, had fallen in war.