Radon Environmental Effects The act of smoking cigarettes sends carbon monoxide, tar, nicotine and many other harmful substances into the body. Ingesting these materials on a regular basis changes the balance of blood oxygen levels and additional aspects of metabolism. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC46 percent of nonsmokers experience some degree of adverse effects from exposure to secondhand smoke. Obviously, the risk for health problems from tobacco use itself is much greater than from secondhand exposure.
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual.
Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction? Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops.
In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred. Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking. Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person.
From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix. Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours. Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts.
A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets. There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious.
Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed. Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety. This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement.
The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour. The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change. Interestingly, the same chemical or behaviour can alter mood in different directions depending on time or setting.
Nicotine can stimulate in the morning or relax before sleep. The pursuit of short term pleasure can cause conflict with other; parents, spouse, friends and can also result in conflict within the person. Griffiths believes that all six need to be present for a diagnosis of addiction. Addiction The main thrust of this topic is synoptic and looks, yet again, at the main theoretical approaches or perspectives to psychology: Risk Factors In this section we will consider factors that make it more or less likely that an individual will develop an addiction.
As such these are not theories designed to explain the root causes of addiction but individual differences in likelihood of becoming an addict. We shall look at genetic risk factors biological and psychosocial factors such as peers.Acronym expansions, definitions, links, and opinions.
Click here for bottom) No Chemical element abbreviation for Nobelium, At.
No. , a transuranide element and perhaps the most blatant bid for a Nobel prize in the history of chemistry. Instruments, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. A feasibility study of an experimental setup for the irradiation of biological samples at the cyclotron facility installed at the National Centre of Accelerators (Seville, Spain) is presented.
Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per live monstermanfilm.com under-five mortality rate is also an important statistic, considering the infant mortality rate focuses only on children under one year of age.
Essay about Comparison between smokers and non-smokers. Smoke Out Smokers and non - smokers have many differences, and very few similarities.
I am one of those people who have been subject to addiction and got into the habit of smoking even though I do realize that us smokers are looked down upon by many people.
No Smoking - Though smoking in hospitals is currently not permissible, the possibility to allow smoking may be brought up; therefore, the inconveniences of cigarette butt littering and smokers gathering at entrances to smoke, along with the dangers of third hand nicotine contamination should reinforce this policy to stay in effect.
According to the American Cancer Society, 60 of the 4, or so chemicals in cigarette smoke are linked to cancer. In , PETA and other animal activists applauded American Spirit for becoming the first-ever cruelty-free cigarette in the U.S. as the first company to refuse to fund any smoking tests on animals.