Overview[ edit ] In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population an operation called census.
Background[ edit ] During the Second World Wara desperate demand for bomber aircraft led to many aircraft being produced by secondary manufacturers via licence manufacturing arrangements. The English Electric company mass-produced thousands of piston-engined bombers, such as the Handley Page Hampden and Handley Page Halifaxin this manner and the firm thus became a well-established British aircraft manufacturer despite having little internal design experience.
In Novemberthe company was invited to participate in discussions over a prospective bomber which would take advantage of the newly developed jet propulsion technology. Petter had prepared a design study for a twin-engined fighter bomber, the P. The design used a relatively conventional aerodynamic design, Petter having determined that the necessary performance could be attained without adopting swept wings or a swept tail.
This requirement, the initial revision being E. According to aviation historians Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist, Air Ministry officials are alleged to have had difficulty defining what they sought for the proposed type, which led to several revisions of the requirement.
Several British aircraft manufacturers submitted proposals to meet the requirement, including English Electric. The firm was among those companies to be short-listed to proceed with development studies.
This initial flight was flown with the intended Avon engines, the decision to perform the type's first flight with the Avon-equipped first prototype or the Nene-equipped second prototype, VN, was not made until weeks beforehand.
The changes included the installation of a glazed nose to accommodate a bomb-aimer, due to the advanced H2S Mk9 bombing radar not being ready for production, the turbojet engines that powered the type were replaced by the more powerful Rolls-Royce Avon R.
In Marchin advance of the maiden flight of the first prototype, English Electric received an instruction to proceed for production. On 21 Aprilthe first production-standard aircraft, designated as the Canberra B2, conducted its maiden flight, piloted by Beamont.
Proving to be fairly free of problems, this first flight was almost immediately followed by the mainstream manufacturing of production Canberras. This led to a succession of orders for Canberra B. Following a competition against rivals such as the Martin XBit was decided to order a total of Canberras.
These aircraft were licence-built by Martin as the B Canberra. Martin would develop several versions of the aircraft themselves. Australia had been interested in the Canberra early on, which had led to the aircraft being named after the Australian capital city.
Particular interest had at one time been expressed in a potential Rolls-Royce Tay powered version of the aircraft. Changes included the adoption of a modified leading edge, increased fuel capacity and room for three starter cartridgesalthough in practice all three cartridges would sometimes fire, leading to the triple starter units being loaded singly.
The PR7 featured greater fuel capacity via wing storage, the more powerful RA. The overall design has been described as being of a simple nature, somewhat resembling a scaled-up Gloster Meteor fighter, except for its use of a mid-wing. All flight controls are manual, using push-rods rather than cables, but are otherwise conventional.
These actuate the aircraft's flight control surfacesincluding shrouded-nosed aileronsfour-section conventional split-type flapsand atypical airbrakes which comprise 40 hydraulically-raised fingers located on the top and bottom surfaces of the wings.
The whole lower section of the fuselage is taken up by the sizable bomb bay, which was typically covered by a pair of hydraulically-driven doors. These were directly mounted in the midsection of the wings using tubular trusses and links between the main mounts and the adjacent leading edge of the wing.
The wing itself was typically empty, fuel was contained within two internally-support self-sealing fuel tanks and an additional lace-support bag held within the upper fuselage.
An improvised method of starting the engine using compressed air was heavily discouraged by Rolls-Royce, but some operators successfully operated the Canberra's engines in such a manner, the benefit being significant cost savings over the use of cartridges.
Such systems include Gee-H navigationRebecca beacon-interrogation distance-measuring equipmentvery high frequency VHF radio, radio compassradar altimeteridentification friend or foe IFFand Orange Putter radar warning receiver.
It is the only modern tactical strike and reconnaissance aircraft in service with the RAF and many other Air Forces. More Canberra aircraft are in service with foreign countries than the Viscount, which holds the record for British civil aircraft. This is due to the flexibility of the Canberra in its operational roles and performance+ free ebooks online.
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