Happiness, said the philosopher Aristotle, is the ultimate purpose, the highest good of mankind. Observing human nature, as Aristotle did, you can see how he came to this conclusion. Everywhere you go, no matter what part of the globe, everyone is looking for happiness.
Fascists also pandered to antiurban feelings. The Nazis won most of their electoral support from rural areas and small towns. In Nazi propaganda the ideal German was not an urban intellectual but a simple peasant, and uprooted intellectualism was considered a threat to the… Definitions of the city and urban cultures Research on urban cultures naturally focuses on their defining institution, the city, and the lifeways, or cultural forms, that grow up within cities.
Urban scholarship has steadily progressed toward a conception of cities and urban cultures that is free of ethnocentrism, with broad cross-cultural and historical validity.
Well into the 20th century conceptions of the city often proceeded as if there were only one authentic or typical form. According to Ethnocentrism culture and strong cultural beliefs, five attributes define an urban community: Weber believed that Oriental cities rarely achieved these essential characteristics because familial, tribal, or sectarian identities prevented urban residents from forming a unified urban citizenry able to resist state control.
The result was an overly limited conception of urban cultures, from which it was extremely difficult to generate a cross-culturally valid understanding.
In the s Robert Redfieldstrongly influenced by Louis Wirth and other members of the Chicago school of urban ecologyconceived of the urban as invariably impersonal, heterogeneoussecularand disorganizing. He presumed that as individuals moved from folk community to city or as an entire society moved toward a more urbanized culture, there would be a breakdown in cultural traditions.
Urbanizing individuals and societies would suffer from cultural disorganization and would have higher incidences of social pathologies like divorce, alcoholism, crimeand loneliness. He ethnocentrically assumed that their findings could be generalized to all urban cultures.
Subsequent research indicated that this conception was in many respects wrong even for American industrial cities.
In spite of being generally ethnocentric and specifically inadequate for American cities, this conception still holds sway over much popular thinking, which conceives of cities, in all cultures and all times, as centres of bohemianism, social experimentation, dissent, anomie, crime, and similar conditions—whether for good or bad—created by social breakdown.
Gideon Sjoberg The Preindustrial City, Past and Present,in the next step toward a cross-culturally valid understanding of cities, challenged this conception of urban culture as ethnocentric and historically narrow.
Preindustrial cities, according to Sjoberg, are to be found in societies without sophisticated machine technology, where human and animal labour form the basis for economic production.
Industrial cities predominate in the modernized nations of western Europe and America where energy sources from fossil fuels and atomic power phenomenally expand economic productivity.
For Sjoberg, preindustrial urban culture differed markedly from its industrial counterpart: Sjoberg collapsed urban cultures of strikingly different sorts into a single undifferentiated preindustrial city type—for example, the cities of ancient empires were conflated with present-day urban places in the Third World.
Past urban cultures that did not readily fit the Sjoberg conception, such as the autocephalous self-governing cities of early modern Europe, were disposed of as temporary and unusual variants of his preindustrial type rather than important varieties of urban culture.
Redfield and Singer delineated two cultural roles for cities that all urban places perform, although with varying degrees of intensity and elaboration. The cultural message emanating from Delhi, Paris, Washington, D. In cities like London, Marseille, or New Yorkthe intelligentsia challenge old methods, question established traditions, and help make such cities innovative cultural centres.
According to Wheatley, only later did economic prominence and political power get added to this original urban cultural role. Wheatley, following Redfield and Singer, established that any conception of an urban culture had to be grounded in the cultural role of cities in their societies; research must specifically address how the urban cultural role organizes beliefs and practices in the wider culture beyond the urban precincts, and, consequently, how this urban cultural role necessitates certain lifeways and social groupings cultural forms in the city.
Beginning in the s, David Harvey Social Justice and the City,Manuel Castells The Urban Question,and other scholars influenced by Marxism caused a major shift in the conception of urban cultural roles.
Although they mainly worked on cities in advanced capitalist cultures, their approach had wide relevance. Rather than looking outward from the city to the urban culture as a whole, the new scholarship conceived the city as a terminus for cultural roles emanating from the wider culture or even the world system.
Harvey, for example, linked major changes in American urban lifeways to the urban culture of advanced capitalism: Castells saw the city as an arena for social conflicts ultimately emanating from the class divisions within capitalist society.
This Marxist scholarship did not contradict the earlier emphasis on the city as the source of cultural roles so much as complement it. Studying the cultural roles of cities must include not only the cultural beliefs and practices that emanate from cities but also the cultural forms that develop within the city as a result of the impact of the urban culture on it.
In this way scholarship can bring forward a cross-culturally and historically valid conception of cities, their cultural forms, and the urban cultures in which they are set.
Types of urban cultures The following typology of urban cultures depends on a conception of cities as centres for the performance of cultural roles found only in state-level societies. Such societies, in contrast to the nonurban cultures previously discussed, have inequalities in economic wealth and political power, the former usually evidenced by class divisions, the latter by specialized institutions of social control ruling elites, government bureaucracies.
State-level societies differ in the nature and extent of economic and political inequalities, and this variability accounts for the different types of urban cultures and cultural roles adduced below. The rationale for the labels used below, however, is that given particular constellations of inequalities, certain urban cultures come to exist and certain cultural roles of cities come to characterize or typify them.
The typology below draws a major distinction between urban cultures that existed before the development of the world capitalist system in the 16th century and those that came after. Before the world capitalist system developed, state-level societies were not integrated in an economically unequal relationship.
The advent of the capitalist world system led to a specialized world economy, in which some state-level societies represented the core and others represented the economically, and often politically, subservient periphery.
Before the world system, urban cultures differed mainly on the basis of internal differences in political and economic inequality. After the world system, urban cultures, in addition, differed according to their placement in either the core or the periphery.Culture. Culture is a force in the world that shapes human behavior as surely as biology and family.
We may define culture as beliefs, values and attitudes of a social group that are passed along. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 5, Pages CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AS A CASE OF CONSTRUCT VALIDITY.
W. Fred van Raaij, Tilburg University. ABSTRACT - Cross-cultural consumer research witnesses an increasing interest of researchers, both for the managerial strategy of multinational companies and in order to establish the universality or . Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism - Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism and cultural relativism are two contrasting terms that are displayed by different people all over the world.
Some studies are only available to people in a certain age range or of a certain sex, so you can optionally fill in that information to be able to participate in those studies. Ethnocentrism is the act of judging another culture based on preconceptions that are found in values and standards of one's own culture.
Ethnocentric behavior involves judging other groups relative to the preconceptions of one's own ethnic group or culture, especially regarding language, behavior, customs, and monstermanfilm.com aspects or categories are distinctions that define each ethnicity's.
Culture and Subculture. Culture is part of the external influences that impact the consumer. That is, culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals. The definition of culture offered in one textbook is “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of.