The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital.
There are at least four possible positions on the thermodynamics of weight gain: Weight gain does not depend on calories in versus calories out, even in the loosest sense.
These people may stay very thin even if they eat and exercise as much as much more obese people. Weight gain is entirely a function of calories in versus calories out, and therefore of how much you eat and exercise.
However, fortunately unfortunately writing activities are in turn mostly dependent on the set points of a biologically-based drive. For example, some people may have overactive appetites, and feel starving unless they eat an amount of food that will make them fat.
Other people will have very strong exercise drives and feel fidgety unless they get enough exercise to keep them very thin. These things can be altered in various ways which cause weight gain or loss, without the subject exerting willpower.
For example, sleep may cause weight loss because people who get a good night sleep have decreased appetite and lower levels of appetite-related hormones.
That means diet is entirely a function of willpower and any claim that factors other than amount of food eaten and amount of exercise performed can affect weight gain is ipso facto ridiculous. If it is found to be contradicted by observation — well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes.
But if your theory is found to be against…thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.
But 4 is also dumb. We have a long list of things that affect weight gain — for example, patients on the powerful psychiatric medication clozapine usually gain a lot of weight — fifteen pounds more on average than people on safer antipsychotics.
Certain genetic diseases are also known to cause increased weight — Prader-Willi syndrome, for example. But first, this is an area where possibility proofs are half the battle, and we have a possibility proof.
And second, there are more than enough studies about genetics, microbiome, and, yes, sleep showing that all of these things can have effects in normal people. So 1 and 4 are out.
And although I do sometimes see people pushing them, they mostly seem to do a thriving business as straw men for people who want to accuse their opponents of saying something absurd.
The most interesting debate to be had is between 2 and 3. But in general, I think 2 is an important issue that does cause at least some interpersonal weight differences. Scientists can delete it in mice.
These mice will eventually develop excessive appetites. But when they are young, they eat the same amount as any other mouse, but still get fatter.
Likewise, 2,4-dinitrophenol is a cellular uncoupling agent which increases metabolic rate and consistently produces weight loss of pounds per week. So what about everyday life?
A study of individual variation in basal metabolic rate found very significant interpersonal differences. The Wikipedia article puts this in context: Claude Bouchard and his team stuck 12 pairs of male identical twins in isolation chambers where their caloric intake and exercise could be carefully controlled, then fed them more calories than their bodies needed.
All sets of twins gained weight, and in all twin groups both twins gained about the same amount of weight as each other, but the amount of weight gained varied between twin pairs by a factor of 3 from 4 to 13 kg.Advanced Academic Services Austin Independent School District GT Differentiated Exemplar Lesson Grade Level: 4 Subject Area(s): _X _ Reading, Writing, __ Mathematics.
This monstermanfilm.comunately Writing Prompt is suitable for 4th - 8th Grade. For this essay worksheet, students write an essay about a situation that happened where they can use the phrases fortunately and unfortunately.
Students write a 1 page essay.
The Art of Writing. New -- 2 February The Art of Writing is perpetually.. Under Construction. However Such a fact of life does not preclude forging ahead with a whole treatise on the subject of the Art of Writing. This is one of my favorite activities to do in class. It can take anywhere from 1/2 hour to a full hour.
First you read this great children’s book: Fortunately by Remy Charlip Here is some of the text “Fortunately there was a parachute in the monstermanfilm.comunately there was a hole in the parachute. First, if you can, read aloud Fortunately by Remy Charlip.
This is a story that goes through fortunately and unfortunately events. In this writing packet students will create their own fortunately, unfortunately stories.4/5(23). Learned Professionals & Ethics In this section, I argue that learned professionals, regardless of whether employed by the government or employed by private enterprise (both for-profit and non-profit organizations), need special protection for their speech and actions.