Should I go to college?
Advantages of Using Theory to Generate Ideas Why do many psychologists prefer theory to common sense?
As you can see from Table T-1there are at least eight reasons why scientists prefer theory to common sense. First, theories tend to be more internally consistent than common sense.
Researchers find it easier to make clear, consistent predictions from a consistent theory rather than from inconsistent common sense. Second, theories tend to be more consistent with existing facts than common sense.
Often, theories are constructed by systematically collecting data and carefully analyzing the data for patterns. Generally, if deductions from a theory are incorrect, the theory will be changed or abandoned.
Thus, unlike common sense, theories do not ignore facts. Consequently, a hypothesis based on an established theory is a more educated guess and should have a greater chance of being correct than one based on common sense. Third, theories are not restricted to making commonsense or intuitively obvious predictions.
Theories can make predictions that are counter-intuitive. For example, social learning theory predicts that rewarding a child for a behavior could make the child like doing the behavior less because the child may decide that he or she does the behavior because of the reward, rather than because the child likes it.
Because theories are not limited to making predictions that are consistent with common sense, a theory may suggest controversial, new ways of viewing the world. Fourth, theories summarize and organize a great deal of information.
Just as the plot of a movie may connect thousands of otherwise unrelated images, theories connect individual facts and give them meaning. That is, theories try to explain facts. The ability of theories to connect facts means that theory-based research will not produce isolated bits of trivia.
Instead, the findings will fit into a framework that connects many other studies. For example, consider the following fact: In its own right, this is a relatively trivial fact.
Fifth, in addition to giving individual facts a meaningful context, theories focus research. Sixth, theories are often broad in scope. Because theories can be applied to a wide range of situations, researchers can generate a wide variety of studies from a single theory. For example, social learning theory can be applied to prisons, businesses, advertising, politics, schizophrenics, smokers, librarians, mad dogs, and Englishmen.
Seventh, theories try to explain the facts with only a few core ideas.
That is, they tend to be parsimonious: The value of parsimony is evident when you consider that a major function of science is to simplify our world. The parsimonious theory provides a few simple rules that summarize hundreds of observations.My American Values, an Experience of Using Cognitive Dissonance, and the Theory of Comparative Advantage as the Keystone of International Trade How culturally determined are the values you hold dear?
You can see some “American” values on page A New Understanding of Terrorism Using Cognitive Dissonance Principles Article in Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 35(4) - · December with Reads DOI: /j COGNITIVE DISSONANCE AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: The theory of cognitive dissonance has generated a good deal of research in consumer behavior.
The relevant evidence from three phases of consumer behavior is reviewed here: pre-decisional determinants of product preference, post-decisional determinants of product preference. Global Poverty and Income Disparity Essay Examples.
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Psych Final- ALL Old Questions. PW: psych STUDY. PLAY. cognitive dissonance theory.
Prejudice is to discrimination as. According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion _____ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion _____ physiological arousal.
Festinger's () cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and behavior in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance). This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency.