Chemistry Tutorial by University of Arizona Review the basics of chemistry you'll need to know to study biology. Large Molecules by University of Arizona Learn about structures and properties of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. Clinical Correlates of pH Levels by University of Arizona Learn how metabolic acidosis or alkalosis can arise and how these conditions shift the bicarbonate equilibrium. The body's compensatory mechanisms and treatment options are also discussed.
CAL-cee-um Discovery and naming It is impossible to say when humans first knew about or used compounds of calcium. Whenever they used limestone to build a structure, they were using a compound of calcium. Limestone is the common name for calcium carbonate CaCO 3. Whenever humans built a statue or monument out of marble, they were using calcium carbonate in another form.
Ancient Egyptians and early Greeks used mortar, a cement-like material that The common uses of electrochemistry stones and bricks together. Early mortar was made by roasting or heating limestone for long periods of time. Water was then mixed with the powder, which would then dry to form a strong bond.
Humphry Davy English chemist H umphry Davy was a major contributor to the field of electrochemistry. This is the science involving the relation of electricity to chemical changes.
He is best known for discovering calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, strontium, and barium. He also discovered nitrous oxide and two types of lamps. Davy grew up in Cornwall, England, in a poor family.
His father, who died when Davy was a boy, had lost money in unwise investments, so Davy helped his mother pay off the debts. He disliked being a student, though he liked reading about science. In later life, he said he was happy he did not study too hard because he had more time to think on his own.
With no money for further education, the year-old Davy began to work for a surgeon-pharmacist. He also started learning on his own about other subjects that interested him, such as geography, languages, and philosophy.
He even wrote poems that later earned him the respect and friendship of William Wordsworth, Samuel Coleridge, and other leading English poets of his time!
That book convinced him to concentrate on chemistry. For the rest of his life, Davy's career was marked by brilliant scientific explorations in chemistry and electrochemistry.
Davy discovered nitrous oxide after testing the effects of hydrogen and carbon dioxide on himself. He liked to use himself as a human guinea pig! Nitrous oxide is a gas consisting of nitrogen and oxygen. While studying nitrous oxide gas, he discovered that its effects often made him feel very happy or very sad.
The feeling of happiness eventually gave nitrous oxide another name: Most importantly, though, Davy recognized that it could be used as an anesthetic. An anesthetic is a chemical used to dull pain during minor surgery. InDavy invented the carbon arc lamp. He had proposed using carbon as the electrode material instead of metal.
Electrodes are conductors used to establish electrical contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit. With carbon electrodes, he made a strong electric current leap from one electrode to the other.
This created an intense white light. Davy's invention marked the beginning of the era of electric light. Arc lamps are still used today. Using his knowledge of electricity, Davy built a large battery which he used to break down substances most scientists thought were pure elements.By separating the two half-reactions, the energy given off by this reaction can be used to do work.
According to the first law of thermodynamics, the energy given off in a chemical reaction can be converted into heat, work, or a mixture of heat and work. Electrochemical Cells.
An extremely important class of oxidation and reduction reactions are used to provide useful electrical energy in batteries. A simple electrochemical cell can be made from copper and zinc metals with solutions of their sulfates.
Electrochemistry is a process by which very thin layers of a selected metal are bonded to the surface of another metal at the molecular level.
The process itself involves creating an electrolytic cell: a device that uses electricity to deliver molecules to a particular location. Electroplating is. The Oakton refillable double junction combination ion selective electrode (ISE) measures the ion concentration in aqueous solutions, and has an epoxy body for impact resistance and durability.
Electrochemistry - a branch of chemistry that deals with the exploitation of spontaneous oxidation-reduction reactions to obtain electrical energy and the use of electrical energy to drive nonspontaneous reactions important in industrial extraction of certain elements.
Measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important in the screening of fruits for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity in cell culture and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures.