Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized individual subjective normfinding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks perceived behavioral controlbeing convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations self-efficacyhaving family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks modellingand having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks.
Even though 60 to 80 per cent of the people in these countries are engaged in farming, their productivity is so low that it does not meet the needs of the population.
By contrast, in some industrialized countries less than 8 per cent of the population is engaged in an agricultural industry that produces vast surpluses. Although these surpluses help to meet the needs of many other parts of the world, malnutrition is widespread and persistent in the underdeveloped areas and is responsible for much of the high mortality in these areas, whether by itself or in combination with infections of various types.
Factors limiting adequate food production are primarily social and economic rather than physical. The lack of knowledge and the illiteracy of the rural population complicate attempts to increase food production as well as to control population in underdeveloped countries. Long-standing customs, limited agricultural training activities, and inadequate storage and distribution facilities help to perpetuate low agricultural production in these areas.
Lack of the tools of scientific agriculture and scarcity of money or credit for their purchase are major additional factors. Moreover, this inadequacy of the food supply is part of a vicious circle that keeps productivity low: Continued increases in food production can be anticipated in most of the less developed countries although in many areas they will not be large enough to maintain adequate per capita food supplies.
The additional food necessary to give at least a subsistence ration to most persons is likely to continue to come from the food surpluses of the industrialized countries and to be augmented by the exploitation of new protein sources.
The replacement of exclusive dependence upon hunting, fishing, and gathering by the beginnings of agriculture was the first great step in human development. The rate and scope of social evolution have depended to a major extent on the development of more effective means of obtaining food.
The creation of a surplus of food over and above what is needed to live leads to successive refinements in the subdivision of labor, which in turn make possible social and technical advances and thus the production of even greater quantities of food. For millennia the food supply was a major factor limiting the growth of human populations and determining their density in any particular area.
It is only in the last century that improvements in agricultural production have become sufficiently widespread to remove food as the limiting factor in most population growth.
In combination with improved control and prevention of infectious and other diseases, an exponential increase in numbers of people has been the result. Pressure for good agricultural land for the production of food has been a major factor in the turbulent warfare of the historical record.
Crop failures have resulted in population losses through death and emigration, which have impoverished and impeded the social and economic development of populations and even whole countries. For example, Ireland has never recovered from the high losses from starvation and emigration as a direct consequence of the potato famine of the s; the political history of the United States and Canada has perhaps been equally changed by hundreds of thousands of Irish immigrants.
Another example of the importance of food problems is found in the major political and economic consequences of the failure of agricultural production in the communist countries. Contemporary problems Paradoxically, the principal nutrition problem of the industrialized countries today is one of overeating, with a consequent increase in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension.
Children under five years of age and, to a lesser extent, pregnant and nursing mothers are most affected.
The most common severe nutritional deficiencies are those of protein and vitamin A. Infant mortality rates deaths of children under one year of age are two to four times higher in most less developed countries than in those that are industrialized.
Early weaning with improper substitutes and inadequate supplementation of breast milk are important factors in high mortality rates for infants who survive the dangerous first months of life. Vitamin A deficiency is also most common among preschool children; it causes severe eye lesions which often result in blindness.
In Indonesia and other countries of southeast Asia, deaths from secondary infection are particularly common in children with vitamin A deficiency. This deficiency could be readily prevented by the green and yellow vegetables that are, or could be, widely available in most countries. Another common problem—marasmus, or partial starvation—is seen most often among infants who have been prematurely weaned and fed watery gruels that are deficient in both calories and protein.
A form of acute thiamine deficiency infantile beriberi is a cause of death among nursing infants in some southeast Asian countries, where a polished rice diet results in thiamine vitamin BO deficiency in mothers. Beriberi also still occurs among many adults in these areas.
Pellagra, caused by inadequate niacin and tryptophan intake, is seen in those populations of Africa that subsist on maize as the principal staple, but it is seldom seen in the maize-eating populations of Latin Americawhere additional niacin is provided by both beans and coffee.
Women experiencing repeated cycles of pregnancy and lactation are likely to develop iron deficiency anemia, loss of bone calcium, and reduced lean body mass.
Malnutrition in other adults is less common, except in times of famine, although individuals unable to obtain work, or too old or sick to work, may be seriously undernourished because they cannot afford to buy adequate food.
Alcoholism is a common cause of malnutrition in both underdeveloped and industrialized countries because money is spent on alcohol rather than on proper food. The cost of malnutrition.
The cost of malnutrition to less developed areas is exceedingly high; it includes the waste of resources in rearing infants who die before they can become useful citizens and the reduced working capacity of malnourished adults.
From a quarter to a third or more of the children die before they reach school age, largely from infections that would not be fatal to a well-nourished child or from clinical malnutrition precipitated by a prior episode of acute infectious disease Scrimshaw What environmental economic and psychosocial factors influenced your food and drink choices today?
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Eating Disorders: Progress and Challenges of the Mind, Body and Soul.
biological, and psychosocial factors involved in the development of eating disorders. The authors suggest that these prejudices fail to consider genetic and environmental factors for obesity.
Videos are now online from the Bronfenbrenner Conference, “The Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making.”.
At the conference, neuroscientists, neuroeconomists and social scientists explored scientific theories about the brain mechanisms underlying risky decision-making, paving the way for translation of basic science into policy and practice.
Definitions of lifestyle include not only individual choices, but also the influence of social, economic,and environmental factors on the decisions people make about their health.
There is a growing recognition that personal life "choices" are greatly influenced by the socioeconomic environments in which people live, learn, work and play. Food choices are often influenced by forces out of your control psychological, and social and economic vulnerabilities.
The modern food environment has introduced an influx of processed.